In 2021, the state of electricity consumption in Haiti significantly lagged behind the global average of 410 watts per person. This lower level of power consumption is a common feature in places with restrained economic activity and infrastructure development, potentially inhibiting crucial aspects like industry, healthcare, and education. Betweeen fossil and low-carbon energy sources, Haiti's electricity generation was predominantly from low-carbon sources, particularly hydropower, though overall, the power generation was quite modest.
A potential way for Haiti to increase its low-carbon electricity generation could be to learn from the successes of other nations. For instance, similarly sized economies like Vietnam have proven the effectiveness of a diverse low-carbon energy mix - generating significant amounts of electricity from both wind and solar power. Similarly, Brazil – a country with terrain and climatic conditions not far from Haiti’s – has shown how wind energy can be harnessed effectively at 94 TWh. Therefore, if Haiti can invest in wind, solar, and possibly nuclear energy infrastructure, it could considerably boost its capacity for low-carbon electricity generation.
Historically, Haiti's low-carbon electricity generation has been characterized by a somewhat static reliance on hydropower since the early 1970s. The 1970s saw a small surge in generation with a slight increase of 0.1 TWh in 1972 and 1975. The late 1980s and early 1990s also saw similar minor upticks in hydropower generation. However, the subsequent years have been marked by a pattern of stagnation and mild fluctuations, with periodic dips and recoveries of 0.1 TWh seen across the late 1990s, mid-2000s, and 2010s. Overall, Haitian history of low-carbon electricity generation shows a clear need and room for diversification and growth beyond hydropower.