Based on our proprietary forecast model, we have analyzed the current status of electricity consumption in Kazakhstan as of the year 2023. Using actual data for the first ten months of the year, and forecasted data for the remaining two months, we find that fossil energy sources, particularly coal and gas, continue to dominate the energy scene with a whopping 87.5%. It's interesting to observe that nearly two-thirds, or 66.9% of this is derived from coal while gas energy sources account for a little over a fifth (or about 20.6%). Yet, there's an equally telling story about green, low-carbon energy. Representing 12.4% of energy consumption in Kazakhstan, low carbon sources have carved out a small but growing share of the electricity palette. Hydropower is the primary contributor in this sector, contributing more than half at 7.6%, followed by wind and solar energy, which account for 3.2% and 1.6% respectively.
Looking at countries with thriving low-carbon energy sector can offer some substantial lessons for Kazakhstan. For instance, Slovakia and Ukraine, similar to Kazakhstan in terms of land area and population density, have harnessed nuclear energy to considerable success, with more than half of their energy being cleanly generated via nuclear facilities. Wind energy is another renewable resources; Denmark and Uruguay respectively generate 59% and 41% of their total electricity from wind, which Kazakhstan can emulate. These are clear indicators that both nuclear and wind energy can be utilized more extensively in Kazakhstan, contributing to a cleaner energy mix and reduction of pollution and climate change impacts that are typically associated with fossil fuels.
History tells us that low-carbon electricity in Kazakhstan has experienced a mix of gains and losses over the years. The late 1980s saw a moderate increase in hydro-generated electricity, however, it wasn't until the mid-1990s that we see a more sizable increase. Then, unfortunately, in the late 90s and early 2000s, hydro experienced a string of declines. It wasn't until 2010 that it finally started to recover with meaningful increases. The last decade of the 21st century saw the introduction of solar and wind sources in the country's energy mix. The addition of solar energy in 2020, and subsequent increases in wind energy, mark encouraging steps towards diversifying the country's electricity portfolio. Despite pockets of declines in recent years, the overall trend for sustainable, low-carbon electricity in Kazakhstan remains promising and offers an enticing possibility for further expansion into nuclear, wind and solar energy.