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Electricity in Kazakhstan in 2023

Global Ranking: #124
12.8% #149 Low-carbon electricity
31.09 % #96 Electrification
677.21 watts #53 Generation / person
650.50 gCO2eq/kWh #194 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Kazakhstan's electricity generation heavily relies on fossil fuels, with more than 87% of its electricity derived from coal and gas. Coal makes up approximately two-thirds of the total electricity generation, while gas contributes a bit more than a fifth. In stark contrast, low-carbon energy sources make up a mere 13% of Kazakhstan's electricity mix. Hydropower is the largest contributor among the clean energy sources, accounting for roughly 8%, while wind and solar energy combined contribute around 5%, with wind energy at about 3.5% and solar at about 1.5%.

Suggestions

Kazakhstan could significantly boost its low-carbon electricity generation by learning from countries that have successfully increased their share of clean energy. For instance, Kazakhstan shares some similarities with Ukraine, which has managed to generate over half of its electricity from nuclear power. Following this model, Kazakhstan could invest in nuclear technology to achieve a substantial increase in low-carbon electricity. Furthermore, wind energy is another promising avenue; Denmark generates over half of its electricity from wind, demonstrating that with the right investments and infrastructure, Kazakhstan could also tap into its wind potential. Emulating Uruguay's model, which generates 35% of its electricity from wind, can further diversify Kazakhstan’s low-carbon portfolio.

History

Historically, Kazakhstan's journey towards low-carbon electricity has seen various changes. In the late 1980s, hydropower saw incremental growth, with increases of around 1 TWh annually. However, the mid-1990s brought a period of decline, with several years registering decreases in hydropower generation. A resurgence occurred in the 2000s, peaking with notable positive changes such as a 2.4 TWh increase in 2016. Recently, wind energy has shown promise, growing steadily with increases of 0.7 TWh in 2021 and 0.8 TWh in 2022, culminating in a 1.4 TWh increase in 2023. Solar energy also gained a boost in 2020, contributing 0.8 TWh. These advancements indicate a slowly growing commitment to low-carbon energy, highlighting the potential for further expansion in the coming years.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the year 1990 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1991 to 1999 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2012 to 2013 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2014 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2015 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2016 to 2017 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2020 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2021 to 2022 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
For the year 2023 the data source is Ember.
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