As of 2011, Guadeloupe's electricity consumption was heavily reliant on fossil fuels, specifically coal, which accounted for almost 70% of its total electricity production. The island had taken strides in shifting to low-carbon energy sources which made up 31% of its total electricity. Biofuels represented a significant portion, at almost 21% while unspecified renewables, wind, and solar energy contributed 5.88%, nearly 3%, and close to 2%, respectively. Guadeloupe neither imports nor exports electricity, making it essential for the island to achieve energy independence through a combination of fossil and low-carbon energy sources.
Recognizing the escalating environmental damages associated with fossil fuel use, Guadeloupe could turn its focus towards more substantial utilization of low-carbon energy sources. There are invaluable lessons to be learned from countries that have been successful in this transition. Denmark, often acknowledged as an exemplar in sustainable energy, generates over half of its electricity from wind power, showing potential for Guadeloupe to expand its wind energy sector. Similarly, Guadeloupe could take a leaf out of France's book, where nuclear energy is a dominant force, making up 61% of its electricity. Additionally, countries like Chile and Yemen have made significant strides in solar energy, generating 17% of their electricity from this source, suggesting Guadeloupe has room for improvement in this sector as well.
The history of low-carbon electricity in Guadeloupe has been marked by a slow but steady evolution. The early 2000s saw virtually no contribution from wind or biofuels to the island's electricity generation. It wasn't until 2004 that biofuels made their first notable input with an increase of 0.1 TWh. Unfortunately, this increment was short-lived as the following years showed no further additions from biofuels or wind energy. The end of the decade introduced solar energy into the mix, but, like its counterparts, its induction to Guadeloupe's electricity scene was somewhat muted, without any notable changes in the subsequent years. Examining Guadeloupe's history of low-carbon electricity production underscores the need for more proactive measures in the future to increase the share of clean, sustainable energy.