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Electricity in Azerbaijan in 2021

Global Ranking: #123
5.4% #165 Low-carbon electricity
291.01 watts #113 Generation / person
518.24 gCO2eq/kWh #149 Carbon Intensity
Net exporter Electricity imports

In 2021, the total electricity consumption per person in Azerbaijan stood at 291 watts/person. This is significantly less than the global average of 412 watts/person. The majority of this electricity was generated from fossil fuels, which accounted for almost 275 watts/person. Gas-powered electricity generation was the dominant source, providing more than half of the total consumption with 181 watts/person. Low-carbon energy sources contribute a much smaller fraction to the country's electricity mix, contributing just over 15 watts/person. hydropower leads this category with almost 14.2 watts/person. Wind and solar energy contributions are nominal, with wind at 1 watt/person and solar at 0.55 watts/person. Given the global challenges of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, this dependence on non-low-carbon energy sources could potentially hinder Azerbaijan's ability to transition to a green economy. Despite the country's low levels of electricity generation, Azerbaijan exports more electricity than it imports.


In order to increase low-carbon electricity generation, Azerbaijan could benefit from the experiences of other countries that have successfully transitioned to low-carbon grids. Nordic countries such as Sweden, France, and Finland have significantly high per person output from nuclear energy, ranging from 517 to 559 watts/person. This is an area where Azerbaijan, given its industrial capabilities, could potentially make substantial investments. Wind energy has also been successfully adopted by many countries, with Denmark leading at 369 watts/person. Given Azerbaijan's geographical potential for wind energy, especially in the coastal areas, this could provide an alternative avenue for low-carbon electricity generation. Lastly, although Azerbaijan's current solar generation is negligible, looking at countries like Australia, which generates 147 watts/person from solar, can provide useful insights into harnessing solar power more effectively.


Examining the history of low-carbon electricity generation in Azerbaijan provides insight into the country's progress in sustainable energy production. The primary source of low-carbon electricity has historically been hydropower. In the late 1980s, there was a drop in hydropower output, and it took until 1990 with a 1 TWh increase to recover. This was followed by another increase of 0.7 TWh in 1993. However, the mid to late 1990s was characterized by a period of instability, with fluctuations both upwards and downwards. The early 2000s saw another resurgence in hydropower, with steady increases until 2006. The subsequent years until today have seen a mixture of increases and decreases, indicating ongoing challenges in stabilizing hydropower production. The volatility in hydropower generation underscores the need for Azerbaijan to diversify its low-carbon electricity mix, exploring other resources such as nuclear, wind, and solar.

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2009 to 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2013 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2021 the data source is Ember.