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Electricity in Azerbaijan in 2021

Global Ranking: #141
5.4% #166 Low-carbon electricity
291.01 watts #111 Generation / person
518.24 gCO2eq/kWh #149 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, the total electricity generation in Azerbaijan was primarily comprised of fossil fuels as the country generated nearly 25 TWh of electricity from fossil sources and over 16 TWh from gas. Meanwhile, low-carbon sources only accounted for around 1.4 TWh and hydropower contributed to almost an additional 1.3 TWh. Therefore, the vast majority of Azerbaijan's electricity was derived from fossil energy which is significantly harmful to the environment due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. This heavy reliance on fossil fuels results in a per capita electricity consumption far below the global average of 410 watts/person. The effects of such a low rate of electricity generation, especially from clean energy sources, may include adverse implications for the country's environment, economy, and energy security. The use of dirty energy may exacerbate air pollution, heighten climate change impacts, and potentially result in increased energy costs due to the growing global demand for clean energy.


Azerbaijan can boost its low-carbon electricity generation by exploring and harnessing other potential clean energy sources. Countries like China and the United States have been able to generate substantial amounts of electricity from their wind and solar resources. For example, China was able to generate over 941 TWh of electricity from wind and more than 531 TWh from solar in 2020. Similarly, the United States generated significant quantities of electricity from nuclear (776 TWh), wind (423 TWh), and solar (243 TWh). These countries serve as examples of how adopting a diversified, low-carbon energy mix can result in large scale production of green electricity. Given Azerbaijan's geographical position and climate, the country could consider investing in wind and solar power infrastructure. Lessons could also be learned from countries like France, Russia, and South Korea regarding the operation and expansion of nuclear power programs.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Azerbaijan is marked by fluctuations in hydropower generation, the country's principal source of clean energy. In the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, there were variable changes in hydropower generation with instances of both increases and decreases. For instance, in 1986 there was a decline in hydropower generation by 0.5 TWh, but this was followed by a recovery in 1990 and 1993 when production increased by 1 TWh and 0.7 TWh respectively. There was, however, a period of instability during the late 1990s and the 2000s where hydropower saw a series of declines and recoveries with no clear upward or downward trend. More recently, there was a significant expansion in 2010 with an additional 1.1 TWh generated, but this was followed by repeated reductions in the subsequent years. Overall, over the past few decades, hydropower production has seen a range of ups and downs with not much significant growth, underscoring the need for exploration and development of more reliable and sustainable sources of low-carbon electricity.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2009 to 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2013 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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