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Electricity in Indonesia in 2022

Global Ranking: #143
19.6% #130 Low-carbon electricity
139.49 watts #145 Generation / person
618.01 gCO2eq/kWh #181 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Indonesia's electricity consumption was heavily reliant on fossil fuels, with significant environmental impacts. The country generated approximately 268 TWh from fossil sources, with coal being the largest contributor at around 206 TWh. Gas contributed 56 TWh, while oil added a smaller share of 6 TWh. Clean energy sources accounted for much less, with low-carbon options like hydropower, biofuels, and geothermal producing approximately 65 TWh combined. More than half of Indonesia's electricity came from coal alone, while low-carbon sources made up less than a third. Given a global average of 425 watts per person, Indonesia's per capita electricity consumption is relatively low. This discrepancy can lead to reduced socio-economic development and a slower pace in improving living standards.


To enhance low-carbon electricity generation, Indonesia could look to successful examples from other nations. China's wind and solar sectors, generating 886 TWh and 584 TWh respectively, provide a blueprint for large-scale clean energy production. Similarly, the growth of nuclear energy in the United States, which produced 775 TWh, showcases the potential of nuclear to deliver substantial clean electricity. India, which shares some socio-economic similarities with Indonesia, has also made strides in solar and wind, generating over 100 TWh from solar power and an additional 82 TWh from wind. These cases highlight the importance of significant investment and supportive policies in achieving a robust clean energy portfolio.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Indonesia has seen fluctuating trends over the decades. In the 1990s, there were modest increases in hydroelectric power with a notable addition of 2.2 TWh in 1992. By the late 1990s, hydro saw both declines, such as a -3 TWh dip in 1997, and spikes like a 4.5 TWh increase in 1998. In more recent years, starting in 2010, hydropower saw major updates, with a 6.1 TWh increase in 2010 followed by a decline of 5 TWh in 2011. The 2010s also brought expansions in other areas: 2.1 TWh in geothermal in 2017, and significant rises in biofuels, notably 12.7 TWh in 2018. The early 2020s continued to see growth, with hydro adding 3.2 TWh in 2020 and biofuels increasing further by 5.7 TWh in 2022. This history underscores Indonesia's potential to expand its clean electricity generation and the need for consistent policy and investments going forward.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1981 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1982 to 1989 the data source is World Bank.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2000 to 2006 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2007 to 2010 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2013 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2014 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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