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Electricity in Mongolia in 2023

Global Ranking: #140
8.8% #158 Low-carbon electricity
27.68 % #103 Electrification
338.94 watts #103 Generation / person
670.23 gCO2eq/kWh #213 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, electricity consumption in Mongolia is heavily reliant on fossil fuels, with 7.23 TWh of electricity generated from these sources. Coal dominates this segment with 6.87 TWh. Additionally, Mongolia imports 1.84 TWh of its electricity needs. When it comes to low-carbon energy, Mongolia’s contributions are minimal, with observable generation in wind and solar but close to none from hydro. Very little of Mongolia's electricity comes from low-carbon sources, emphasizing a heavy dependency on fossil fuels. Compared to the global average of 425 watts per person, Mongolia's low levels of electricity generation could hamper economic development and limit access to modern amenities, which further exacerbates issues related to poverty and public health.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Mongolia can look to lessons from successful countries. China’s massive wind energy generation of 886 TWh and solar generation of 584 TWh provide excellent case studies on scaling up these technologies. The United States also excels with 775 TWh from nuclear power and significant contributions from wind and solar. France and South Korea are examples of countries successfully utilizing nuclear power, generating 336 TWh and 180 TWh respectively. Mongolia, with its vast open spaces and sufficient sunlight, can benefit particularly from investments in wind and solar technologies. Additionally, learning from countries like France and South Korea on setting up and managing safe and efficient nuclear power plants could further bolster Mongolia’s low-carbon electricity portfolio.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Mongolia reveals a slow growth pattern with a few notable increments. In the years spanning from 2009 to 2011, and again from 2014 to 2015, there was no growth in hydroelectric power. Wind energy saw its first contribution of 0.1 TWh in 2014, followed by additional growths of 0.2 TWh each in 2018 and 2019. Solar energy began its contribution in 2017 but only reached 0.1 TWh by 2019. The last few years saw minimal additions, with 0.1 TWh each in solar and wind in 2021 and no growth in 2022 and 2023. These figures indicate that while there are earnest efforts to introduce and expand low-carbon energy sources, the pace has been quite slow, necessitating a more robust and aggressive approach to transition from fossil fuels.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2010 to 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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