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Electricity in Mongolia in 2022

Global Ranking: #116
7.2% #160 Low-carbon electricity
303.48 watts #109 Generation / person
689.58 gCO2eq/kWh #213 Carbon Intensity
18.3% net imports Electricity imports

In 2022, the state of electricity consumption in Mongolia shows a clear leaned towards fossil-generated power, with a total per capita rate of approximately 303 watts. The large majority of this total, around 226 watts per person, is derived from fossil energy sources, specifically coal. Low-carbon energy, comprising of wind, solar and hydro power, contributes merely 22 watts per person, showing a significant gap in the energy mix. This places Mongolia below the global average electricity consumption of 412 watts per person. The low levels of electricity generation could lead to several effects, such as lower economic development, inadequate supply for industrial activities and difficulties in fulfilling household energy needs. Additionally, it's important to note that Mongolia relies on net electricity imports for nearly 18% of its total electricity consumption.


There is significant potential for Mongolia to increase its low-carbon electricity generation. By analyzing the success of similar countries, Mongolia may identify pathways to growing its green energy infrastructure. For instance, Denmark and Sweden have effectively harnessed wind power, generating 369 and 363 watts per person respectively, offering a model for Mongolia to possibly replicate given its own windy environment. Furthermore, Mongolia stands to diversify its low-carbon energy mix. Countries like Australia and Japan have successfully incorporated solar power into their energy mix. Studying and adopting best practices from these countries could help Mongolia ramp up its solar power output, thereby increasing the proportion of low-carbon electricity.


Historically, the production of low-carbon electricity in Mongolia has been somewhat sluggish. Since 2008, there has been little progress in solar energy generation, with the figure remaining at zero throughout the years, until 2013 when wind energy took foot with a modest increase of 0.1 terawatt-hours (TWh). While hydroelectricity remained stagnant, wind energy saw minor growth through 2017. Unfortunately, in 2022, there was a slight drop in wind energy production of 0.1 TWh. This history underpins the necessity for Mongolia to seize opportunities for sustainable growth in clean energy sources, such as wind and solar, taking cues from the achievements of other nations.

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.