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Electricity in Turkmenistan in 2021

Global Ranking: #185
0.0% #187 Low-carbon electricity
503.02 watts #74 Generation / person
654.72 gCO2eq/kWh #192 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Turkmenistan's electricity consumption relied almost exclusively on fossil fuels, with a staggering 99.95% of its entire electricity supply originating from this source. In terms of low-carbon electricity, the Central Asian country recorded near non-existent figures. Simply put, practically all electricity consumed within Turkmenistan was from fossil fuels, leaving a virtually untouched potential for the introduction and scale up of clean, low-carbon energy sources.


Turkmenistan could significantly increase its low-carbon electricity generation by looking towards countries like France, Slovakia, and Ukraine, which have effectively leveraged nuclear power to meet a majority of their electricity needs - with percentages as high as 66%, 61%, and 58% respectively. Given their comparable geographical and socio-economic conditions, Armenia, with 25% of its electricity generated from nuclear power, could also serve as a model for Turkmenistan. Besides nuclear, wind power presents another potential avenue, as evidenced by Denmark's success in generating 59% of its total electricity from wind energy. Notably, Iran, a country with geographic and climate conditions similar to Turkmenistan, has been successful in generating a substantial part of its electricity from wind, thus demonstrating that this model could be feasible for Turkmenistan as well.


Historically, Turkmenistan has had little to no engagement with low-carbon electricity sources. From the earliest available data in 1992 up until 2021, both hydropower and solar power recorded consistent zero Terawatt hours (TWh) changes in electricity generation from year to year. In other words, throughout these years, Turkmenistan did not add any new production in these fields. This lack of growth in low-carbon electricity sectors suggests a long-standing heavy reliance on fossil fuels, as well as a missed opportunity to develop sustainable, clean power sources for electric generation within the country. Consequently, the potential for incorporating low-carbon, sustainable energy sources such as nuclear, wind, and solar power into Turkmenistan's energy landscape remains largely untapped.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2010 to 2017 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2020 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the year 2021 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
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