The current situation regarding electricity consumption in Ukraine presents an encouraging shift towards cleaner, low-carbon energy sources. Altogether, low-carbon energy, including nuclear energy, represents a significant part of Ukraine's electricity production, totaling around 148.48 TWh. Meanwhile, fossil fuels comprise a smaller percentage of electricity generation, with coal and gas combined accounting for about 32.94 TWh. Further break down reveals that nuclear contributes the most substantial share in the low-carbon group, producing roughly 65 TWh. The use of hydro, solar, and wind power is limited and contributes to approximately 17.7 TWh of electricity production. Despite the optimistic progress, Ukraine's per capita electricity consumption falls behind the global average of 410 watts per person. This low level of electricity generation might hamper the technological and economic growth of Ukraine.
To enhance Ukraine's move towards green electricity generation, the country can learn from the successful experiences of others. As nuclear energy makes up a substantial share of Ukraine's low-carbon electricity generation, it can consider expanding existing nuclear power capabilities. Various countries, including the United States (776 TWh), France (319 TWh), Russia (215 TWh), and South Korea (174 TWh), generate significant amounts of electricity through nuclear power, exhibiting potential avenues for Ukraine to explore. Moreover, nations like China, the United States, and Germany have successfully harnessed the potential of wind and solar energy contributing 941, 423, and 142 TWh respectively. Therefore, Ukraine may also look into developing these sectors further, boosting the total electricity production with low-carbon energy.
The historical trajectory of low-carbon electricity in Ukraine, primarily driven by nuclear power, has experienced several peaks and troughs over time. In the late 1980s, there was a surge in nuclear electricity production, registering a significant increase from the negative production growth recorded in 1986. Despite minor declines in the late 1980s and early 1990s, nuclear electricity saw a steady rise until the early 2000s. However, the period from 2004 onwards was marked by a series of declines and resurgence, showing a somewhat unstable trend in the nuclear sector for power generation. A notable downturn occurred recently in 2022, signifying a significant dip in nuclear power production. This decrease might suggest the potential unreliability of operating solely on nuclear energy, prompting the need to diversify into other low-carbon alternatives like wind and solar power.