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Electricity in Ethiopia in 2021

Global Ranking: #144
99.9% #5 Low-carbon electricity
13.94 watts #196 Generation / person
24.37 gCO2eq/kWh #5 Carbon Intensity

The current state of electricity consumption in Ethiopia is significantly composed of low-carbon energy sources, predominantly hydropower, which accounts for close to all of the 14.68 terawatt-hours (TWh) of low-carbon electricity generated in 2021. When compared to the global average electricity generation of around 410 watts per person, Ethiopia's consumption is considerably lower, showcasing an opportunity for growth in terms of electrification and energy sustainability. However, the relativity of low electricity generation may also imply a low environmental footprint, primarily since the broad category of energy used is low-carbon.


Considering other countries' success in low-carbon electricity generation might provide valuable pointers for Ethiopia. For example, People's Republic of China and the United States, the leading nations in terms of wind and solar power production, respectively. While these countries' size and economic capabilities may be vastly dissimilar from Ethiopia, understanding their policies, infrastucture investments and strategic partnerships could be a helpful guide. Similarly, countries like Brazil, known for its effective use of wind energy (94 TWh), and India, which leverages solar power commendably (119 TWh), could also be vital inspirations. Given Ethiopia's climate and geographical positioning, both wind and solar energies could be utilised more.


Looking at Ethiopia's history of low-carbon electricity, it's evident that hydropower has been the primary contributor in the first two decades of the 21st century. Starting from 2001, there has been an incremental increase in electricity generated from hydropower, reaching up to 2.1 TWh in 2016. Wind energy also began contributing to the low-carbon electricity generation in 2015 with only 0.3 TWh. However, growth in wind energy has been volatile with instances of negative growth in 2017 and 2019. Despite these fluctuations, the trends suggest a consistent effort which needs to be sustained towards harnessing more wind energy and exploring other low-carbon energy sources like solar and nuclear.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1991 the data source is EIA.
For the year 1992 the data source is IEA.
For the year 1993 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1994 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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