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Electricity in Rwanda in 2022

Global Ranking: #103
53.0% #70 Low-carbon electricity
20.48 % #114 Electrification
8.48 watts #205 Generation / person
284.98 gCO2eq/kWh #62 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Rwanda's electricity consumption was significantly low compared to global standards. The average electricity consumption per person in Rwanda was just 49 watts, a stark contrast to the global average of 432 watts per person. Most of Rwanda's electricity generation came from hydroelectric sources, a low-carbon energy type, while the share of fossil fuels in the mix was relatively close to none. This reliance on low-carbon energy is commendable, but the overall electricity generation and consumption remain critically low. Such low levels of electricity generation can hinder economic development, access to modern amenities, and quality of life for Rwandans.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Rwanda can look to examples from other countries that have successfully expanded their green energy capacity. For instance, China has made significant strides in both wind and solar electricity generation, producing 886 TWh and 584 TWh respectively. Closer to Rwanda's context, India has developed substantial wind and solar capacities, generating 82 TWh from wind and 113 TWh from solar each year. These countries have demonstrated that investing in solar and wind energy infrastructure can rapidly escalate clean energy production. Additionally, Rwanda can explore the potential of nuclear energy as countries like France and South Korea have effectively utilized it to produce hundreds of TWh of clean electricity annually.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Rwanda has shown incremental changes, particularly in hydroelectric power. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, there were minor fluctuations in hydroelectric generation, with slight increases and decreases. However, from 2003 to 2013, hydroelectric generation was mostly stable, showing zero net changes. More recently, between 2014 and 2020, Rwanda saw modest yet positive increments in hydroelectric power generation. These small but consistent increases suggest a steady, if slow, commitment to expanding low-carbon electricity. To significantly bolster its capacity, Rwanda might need to diversify into other low-carbon sources such as nuclear, wind, and solar, learning from the successful deployments in other countries.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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