In 2023, more than half of electricity consumption in Bosnia & Herzegovina came from fossil fuels, specifically coal, at 58.75%. On the other hand, almost two-fifths of electricity was generated from low-carbon sources, with hydropower accounting for the substantial majority of this classified at 40.18%. Wind power generation was close to none, at just a little over 1%. This makeup of energy demonstrated an urgent need for the Balkan nation to diversify its energy options and seek more sustainable and cleaner forms of energy.
Observing the energy practices of other nations can provide valuable insights for Bosnia & Herzegovina's clean energy journey. Countries like Denmark and Uruguay have been successful in wind power, for instance, with percentages of 59% and 41% respectively, hinting at the potential wind holds if appropriately harnessed. Nuclear energy, though absent from current energy sources in Bosnia & Herzegovina, has seen significant usage in countries such as France and Slovakia, where it forms 66% and 61% of their electrical generation respectively. These examples show that expanding into nuclear energy and furthering the use of sustainable sources like wind could greatly contribute to a more diverse and clean energy profile.
The data on Bosnia & Herzegovina's electricity generating history shows that the country has mainly depended on hydroelectric power for low-carbon electricity. This has seen significant fluctuations since 1991. For example, a boom in the early 1990s was followed by a decline, with hydroelectric power seeing a negative growth for quite a few years until 1996. The first decade of the 21st century saw the greatest instability in hydroelectric power generation, with sizeable growth and decline occurring in alternating years. However, the last two decades have seen signs of gradual growth, despite minor declines, indicating a determination to increase low-carbon, specifically hydroelectric power, in the country’s electricity generation profile.