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Electricity in Ghana in 2022

Global Ranking: #89
34.0% #100 Low-carbon electricity
78.23 watts #165 Generation / person
336.41 gCO2eq/kWh #77 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Ghana consumed approximately 37 TWh of electricity, with more than half generated from fossil fuels, specifically 14.85 TWh from fossil sources and 14.23 TWh from gas. Low-carbon energy contributed around 7.65 TWh, with hydropower making up the bulk at 7.5 TWh. Comparatively, Ghana's per capita electricity consumption is significantly lower than the global average of 432 watts per person. The low levels of electricity generation in Ghana can lead to energy shortages, hamper economic development, and limit access to essential services, impacting overall quality of life and causing disparities in development.


To boost low-carbon electricity generation, Ghana can leverage lessons from successful countries. China and India have made substantial strides in solar energy, producing 584 TWh and 113 TWh, respectively. Investing in solar and wind energy infrastructure can be particularly beneficial due to Ghana's favorable geographic conditions. Furthermore, adopting a balanced energy mix, including nuclear energy—which has been successfully leveraged by countries like the United States, France, and Russia—can enhance grid stability and offer a reliable, clean energy source to complement intermittent solar and wind power.


Ghana's history of low-carbon electricity generation reveals a significant reliance on hydropower with fluctuating output. In the early 1980s, there were notable declines, including drops of 2.3 TWh in 1983 and 0.8 TWh in 1984, followed by some recovery. The late 1990s saw a sharp decline in 1998 with a drop of 3 TWh, but rebounded by 2.7 TWh collectively in the following two years. The early 2000s experienced further variability, and by 2008, hydropower had surged by 2.4 TWh after previous drops. Despite intermittent setbacks, such as a 2.5 TWh decline in 2015, production saw an increase of 1.2 TWh in 2019. This historical context underlines the need for diversifying Ghana's energy portfolio to include more sustainable and reliable low-carbon sources like solar, wind, and nuclear energy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1992 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1993 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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