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Electricity in Cuba in 2021

Global Ranking: #105
21.4% #126 Low-carbon electricity
200.29 watts #129 Generation / person
544.01 gCO2eq/kWh #155 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, the overall electricity generation in Cuba was predominantly fueled by fossil sources, specifically 15.53 terawatt-hours (TWh). Low-carbon energy sources accounted for a significantly lower portion, coming in at around 4.22 TWh, with biofuels contributing an impressive 3.83 TWh. It is important to highlight that, while low-carbon energy sources such as nuclear, wind, and solar are grouped together, the role of biofuels – considered a low-carbon energy source – in the energy portfolio is both notable and invaluable. In comparison to the global average of 410 watts per person, Cuba's electricity generation levels are fairly low. This might lead to consequences like lower industrial productivity, reduced hours of power supply, and constraint development opportunities.


Reflecting on the successful global practices in low-carbon electricity generation, Cuba could harness the benefits of embracing alternative energy sources to enhance its energy portfolio. Brazil, a country with somewhat similar climatic conditions, has successfully utilized wind energy, producing up to 94 TWh. Likewise, countries like Spain and India have effectively leveraged solar energy, each producing 40 TWh and 120 TWh respectively. Even a country like Mexico has made noteworthy strides in wind energy production reaching 21 TWh. If Cuba can replicate these successful strategies, it could substantially boost its low-carbon energy generation.


As for the history of low-carbon electricity in Cuba, it primarily lies in the generation of biofuels. The journey has seen both ups and downs, but the commitment to biofuels has endured. For instance, in the 1970s, there was a minor decrease in biofuels electricity generation, which later recovered in the late 1990s. During the first decade of the 21st century, there were notable fluctuations; 2008 saw an impressive rise in biofuels related electricity generation (1.8 TWh), although this was followed by a considerable decline in 2009 (-1.7 TWh). A similar pattern recurred in 2010 and 2011. More recently, the past decade has witnessed a slow yet steady increase in biofuels electricity production, hinting at a future with an even stronger reliance on low-carbon sources.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1989 the data source is World Bank.
For the years 1990 to 2007 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2009 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2010 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2011 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2012 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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