As of the year 2021, Greenland is demonstrably ahead of the curve in accessing and utilizing low-carbon sources for its electricity. An impressive 83% of the country’s power comes from such clean energy sources, which, in this case, is entirely supplied by hydropower. The remaining energy footprint, a mere 17%, is fossil-based. Furthermore, Greenland's achievement as an exporter of electricity assists its neighboring countries in decreasing their own carbon emissions, showcasing its commitment to sustainability on a regional level. However, despite these commendable strides, a challenge persists: the electrification of areas like transport, industry and heating, sectors that presently require a robust supply of energy to transition.
In order to escalate its low-carbon electricity production and meet the increased demands from different sectors, Greenland could consider diversifying its energy portfolio. While hydropower proves formidable in its effectiveness, the introduction of other sustainable energy forms like wind, solar and notably, nuclear power, would ensure a reliable electricity supply, especially during periods of fluctuating hydropower generation. The geographical advantages of Greenland, with its copious winds and expansive coastlines, provide excellent potential for wind power development. Similarly, the long daylight hours during the summer and advanced nuclear technologies offer opportunities for both solar and nuclear energy exploitation.
The journey towards low-carbon electricity in Greenland has been primarily accomplished through steady growth in its hydropower sector. In the year 2001, there was no change in hydroelectricity generation compared to the previous year; this trend remained consistent until the year 2009, when there was a minor uptick. A decade later, in 2019, we see another rise. Overall, the evolution of low-carbon electricity in Greenland has been characterized by a significant reliance on hydropower. While expansions in hydroelectricity generation have been slow and intermittent, the efforts made thus far have propelled Greenland to the forefront of low-carbon energy utilization and exportation, setting a strong example for global sustainability efforts.