According to forecast models which take into account actual data from the first 11 months of 2023 and predicted data for the remaining month, the current state of electricity consumption in Peru is varied in terms of its energy source. As it stands, low-carbon electricity generation, including hydropower (28.18 TWh), wind (2.31 TWh), and biofuels (1.03 TWh), accounts for close to 32.47 TWh. This significantly outweighs fossil fuel energy sources like gas (26.18 TWh) and other non-specified fossil-based sources. Despite this relatively high proportion of clean energy, there is room for improvement as the global average electricity consumption stands at 410 watts/person. The comparatively low level of electricity generation in Peru could be stifling both residential and commercial development, as well as limiting technological advancements.
Boosting low-carbon electricity generation in Peru could be achieved through studying and implementing practices from successful nations. Considering Peru’s geography and climate, Brazil’s success with wind energy (94 TWh) and solar energy (50 TWh) could offer valuable insights, as they have harnessed the power of their changing landscapes effectively. Additionally, Spain's successful implementation of wind energy (61 TWh) and solar energy (40 TWh) could provide another stable and clean solution considering Spain's similar sunny and windy climate. Countries like the United States and People’s Republic of China, leading the world in wind and nuclear energy respectively, could offer lessons on large-scale clean energy production. The import of technology and expertise from such countries could revolutionize Peru's energy infrastructure and significantly reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.
Historical data on low-carbon electricity in Peru reveals a long-standing reliance on hydropower. In the early 1980s, hydropower generation saw a minor increase, with a notable boost by 1 TWh in 1981. The trend of growth was mostly sustained throughout the 1990s, despite a slight decline of 1.8 TWh in 1992. The start of the 21st century heralded a significant jump in hydropower generation with an increment of 1.6 TWh in both 2000 and 2006. The largest increment was recorded in the last decade of the century, with a jump of 4.8 TWh in 2017. However, the most recent years have seen a disappointing downturn with a reduction of 2.2 TWh in 2022 and a further dip of 1.5 TWh in 2023.