In Montenegro, the electricity mix is almost evenly divided between low-carbon and fossil energy sources. Low-carbon sources account for slightly more than half of the electricity production, with 52.32% of the total. The lion's share of the low-carbon electricity comes from hydropower, which contributes a hefty 42.41%, while wind energy contributes a further 9.91%. On the other hand, fossil fuels represent approximately 47.68%, with all of it coming from coal. It is worth noting that Montenegro is not only meeting its own electricity needs but is also a net exporter of electricity, thanks to its rich resources of clean and sustainable energy.
To further increase its generation of low-carbon electricity, Montenegro can learn and adopt strategies from various successful countries. For example, the country could explore channelling more investments into wind energy, a strategy that has notably benefited Denmark, a country where wind power accounts for 52% of its electricity production. Additionally, considering Montenegro's geographical and structural similarities with Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Armenia, the implementation of nuclear energy could represent a viable strategy. These countries generate 38%, 33%, and 25% of their electricity respectively from nuclear energy. By diversifying their energy sources and moving towards a greater mix of low-carbon energy production, Montenegro can become a more dominant player in the global green energy movement.
Looking at the historical data, electricity in Montenegro has primarily been generated through hydropower. Over the years, the contribution of hydropower has seen ups and downs. In the early years, from 2006 to 2010, the change in electricity generation from hydropower fluctuated between a slight decline and a modest increase. A significant drop was observed in 2011, but it rebounded in the subsequent years. A new addition in the form of wind energy was introduced in 2017, marking the beginning of Montenegro's diversification into other forms of low-carbon electricity generation. Over the last few years, the generation from both hydropower and wind has seen slight variations, hinting at the impact of climatic conditions on these heavily weather-dependent energy sources. The ongoing challenge, therefore, is to balance the energy mix and ensure a consistent supply of electricity amidst these fluctuations.