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Electricity in Kenya in 2023

Global Ranking: #127
85.1% #23 Low-carbon electricity
28.77 watts #181 Generation / person
110.39 gCO2eq/kWh #23 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Kenya’s electricity generation stands predominantly as green energy with a share of low-carbon electricity being almost 92%, an impressive majority. Breaking down the low-carbon production, Geothermal energy has the lead contributing slightly above half, around 53% of the total low-carbon production. The remaining shares are split evenly between Hydropower and Wind, each contributing close to a quarter, at 24% and 18% of the total low-carbon production respectively. Conversely, Fossil energy accounts for merely 8% of the total electricity production, indicating a promising shift to a cleaner energy economy. However, when compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, Kenya's electricity generation is still relatively low. This can result in energy shortages, stunting development progress across different sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and services, thereby impacting the quality of life for people who lack access to reliable electricity.


Taking cues from successful countries could aid Kenya in leveraging its low-carbon electricity production. Wind energy, which already has a substantial contribution in Kenya, can be further expanded, as observed in China and the United States generating 964 TWh and 425 TWh respectively. Kenya, having similar climatic conditions to Brazil, should look into the potential of harnessing more wind energy, as seen in Brazil's success with an impressive generation of 94 TWh. By investing in and expanding wind energy infrastructure, Kenya can significantly ramp up its low-carbon electricity production and further decrease its dependence on fossil energy.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Kenya has been quite eventful. Since the late 80s, access to green energy sources has been a key foundation of the country's electricity strategy. The focus was mostly on harnessing hydropower, with considerable fluctuations in its units produced over the years, peaking at an additional 1.3 TWh in 2010. However, the reliance on hydro energy saw a slow-down in the 21st century, owing to the unpredictable weather patterns that affected the water volumes. From the mid-2010s, Kenya began embarking on other low-carbon sources. Significantly, there was a successful surge in geothermal production with an additional 1.2 TWh and 1.3 TWh in 2014 and 2015 respectively and a progressive adoption of wind energy, most notably with an increment of 1.2 TWh in 2019. Despite some setbacks in hydro, the overall trend reveals a dedication to green energy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1979 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1980 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2007 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2013 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2014 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is Ember.
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