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Electricity in Tanzania in 2021

Global Ranking: #157
44.0% #73 Low-carbon electricity
14.88 watts #193 Generation / person
348.81 gCO2eq/kWh #78 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Tanzania's electricity consumption was powered by a mixture of fossil fuels and low-carbon sources. Fossil energy, coming predominantly from natural gas, accounted for approximately 4.5 TWh of the country's electricity. Low-carbon sources, mainly hydropower, contributed nearly 3.7 TWh. In comparison to the global average electricity consumption of 410 watts per person, Tanzania's electricity production is significantly low. This limited electricity generation can potentially affect economic growth, healthcare delivery, and educational opportunities in the country.


Looking at how other countries have successfully increased their low-carbon electricity generation may provide valuable insights for Tanzania. Brazil, a country with similar geographical and climatic conditions, has been successful in generating a significant portion of its electricity from wind power, producing 94 TWh annually. Tanzania could also look to India as an example, given its success in generating solar electricity. India's solar generation stands at approximately 119 TWh per year - an impressive number that suggests solar power could also be a viable option for Tanzania. In addition, Tanzania could harness nuclear energy as an effective low-carbon electricity source, as demonstrated by the United States who generate a substantial 776 TWh from nuclear energy annually.


The history of low-carbon electricity production in Tanzania has been dominated by fluctuations in hydropower generation, with minor contributions from biofuels. The early phase, from 1989 to 2000, saw modest increases and decreases in hydropower production, with an overall positive trend. Significant ups and downs continued in the onslaught of the 21st century, reflecting variations in rainfall and subsequently water flow. Biofuels made a small but noteworthy entry into the mix in the year 2000 and again in 2018. In the more recent years, hydropower generation has picked up again, ending on a high note in 2020 with an increase of 0.7 TWh. The historical trend suggests that while hydro has been a substantial low-carbon electricity source for Tanzania, diversifying into other low-carbon sources could be beneficial for a more stable and sustainable electricity supply.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1992 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1993 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2002 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2003 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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