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Electricity in Tanzania in 2022

Global Ranking: #102
32.1% #106 Low-carbon electricity
18.44 % #116 Electrification
16.46 watts #193 Generation / person
341.53 gCO2eq/kWh #81 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Tanzania's electricity consumption heavily relied on fossil fuels and gas, with both contributing approximately 6 TWh each to the total generation, which is more than 80% of the total. Low-carbon energy sources, primarily from hydropower, accounted for just under 3 TWh, which is close to none compared to the global trend toward sustainable energy generation. Overall, Tanzania generated roughly 15 TWh of electricity for its population, translating to about 93 watts per person. This is significantly lower than the global average of 432 watts per person, suggesting that Tanzania may face challenges such as limited industrial growth, lower quality of life, and constraints on economic development due to insufficient electricity generation.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Tanzania can look to successful strategies employed by other countries. Developing wind and solar power like China and India, which generated 886 TWh and 113 TWh respectively from wind and solar, is a viable pathway. Nigeria's expansion of solar power could serve as a model given its similar climate and geographical conditions. Furthermore, Tanzania should also consider diversifying its energy mix by incorporating nuclear power, following the lead of nations like the United States, which produced 775 TWh from nuclear sources, and South Korea with 180 TWh. Adopting these sustainable energy sources would mitigate climate change impacts and reduce reliance on fossil fuels, enhancing Tanzania's energy security.


The history of low-carbon electricity generation in Tanzania, primarily from hydropower, shows a series of fluctuating changes. In the late 1980s, hydropower saw modest growth of 0.2 TWh in 1989 and 1991. However, the 1990s were marked by inconsistent changes with minor increases and decreases, such as a 0.2 TWh decline in 1994 and a 0.6 TWh surge in 1998. The early 2000s presented downturns, with notable reductions in 2004 (-0.5 TWh) and 2006 (-0.3 TWh), while 2007 experienced a significant increase of 1.1 TWh. More recent years, particularly the 2010s and 2020s, continued this trend of volatility but showed some growth spurts like a 0.9 TWh rise in 2014 and a 0.7 TWh increase in 2020. This historical inconsistency underscores the need for a more stable and diversified approach to green energy development in Tanzania.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1992 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1993 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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