Based on the data provided for the year 2021, Sudan generates approximately 41.48 watts per person in electricity, which is significantly lower than the global average of 412 watts per person. This low level of electricity per capita is not adequate to support modern economic development or quality of life, and indicates a substantial gap in the country's energy infrastructure. Out of the total generated electricity, close to two-thirds is low-carbon energy, primarily derived from hydropower, which is commendable. However, around a third comes from fossil fuels, largely gas. Biofuels also make a small contribution, whereas solar power constitutes close to none of the energy mix. It's worth noting that Sudan neither imports nor exports electricity, meaning all its consumption is met by domestic generation.
Considering the potential benefits and existing scenarios, Sudan has substantial prospects for improvement when it comes to generating clean energy. An insightful step would be to borrow sustainable practices from successful countries. For instance, Uruguay and Spain, and to an extent, Germany and Denmark have made excellent progress in utilizing wind energy. As for nuclear energy, Sudan could glean insights from nations such as Sweden and France that generate vast amounts of low-carbon electricity from this source. Solar energy is another viable option, where Sudan can draw inspiration from sunny countries like Australia and Israel. Given Sudan's geographical and climatic conditions, a combination of these three sources - wind, solar and nuclear could yield a promising outcome.
Examining the history of Sudan's low-carbon electricity generation provides an understanding of the progress made so far and the challenges faced. The early 1980s saw marginal improvements in hydroelectric power. However, a significant boost in hydro generation was only achieved towards the end of the first decade of the 21st century, with an impressive increase of 1.8 TWh in 2009 followed by an even bigger jump of 2.9 TWh in 2010. Unfortunately, these gains were offset by a minor decline in biofuel generation that year. The subsequent decade saw a mix of mild increases and decreases, with biofuels making small but regular contributions to low-carbon electricity generation from 2012 onwards. Despite these fluctuations, an overall upward trend is evident in hydroelectric power, which forms the backbone of Sudan's clean energy resources. However, it's clear that diversification into other low-carbon sources is needed to bolster Sudan's energy portfolio and secure a sustainable energy future for its people.