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Electricity in Sudan in 2021

Global Ranking: #120
66.1% #48 Low-carbon electricity
41.48 watts #177 Generation / person
231.86 gCO2eq/kWh #51 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Sudan's electricity consumption was primarily a mix of low-carbon and fossil-based sources. Hydropower, a clean and low-carbon source, represented a significant portion of the country's energy portfolio with 10 terawatt-hours (TWh), while the broader low-carbon category reached nearly 11 TWh. On the other hand, fossil fuels contributed to about 5.62 TWh of electricity, with gas contributing an additional 1.77 TWh. Compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, Sudan's lower levels of electricity generation could potentially hinder technological advancements and economic growth in the country. Transitioning to a more substantial use of low-carbon energy sources is needed to not only reduce reliance on fossil fuels but also to limit the environmental impact.


Examining the successful implementation of low-carbon energy generation in other countries can guide Sudan in its energy transition. For instance, Brazil, a country with a climate similar to Sudan, has proven effective in harnessing wind energy, generating 94 TWh of electricity from this clean source. In addition to wind, solar energy, particularly that generated in the People's Republic of China (523 TWh) and India (120 TWh), can provide valuable insights into how Sudan can significantly ramp up its solar capabilities. Furthermore, despite its controversy, nuclear energy should not be overlooked as a viable low-carbon option. Numerous countries, including the United States, France, and Russia, generate impressive amounts of clean electricity through nuclear power.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Sudan has revolved primarily around hydroelectric power, seeing fluctuating rates of increase throughout the years. The early years, from 1981 to the late 1990s, saw slow growth- flirting with just 0.2 TWh increases. It's not until 2009 that notable growth in hydroelectric power is evident--jumping 1.8 TWh in a single year. The following year, 2010, saw the most significant growth in this sector, increasing by almost 3 TWh. However, this decade also marked the inception of biofuels contributing to Sudan's low-carbon mix, though their contributions remain modest to date. The recent years, from 2015 to 2021, witnessed a less dramatic yet steady increase in hydroelectricity, somewhat offset by a small dip in 2015 and 2016. However, it's clear that over its history, Sudan's commitment to expanding hydroelectric power has generally paid off, contributing a significant portion of its electricity today.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1999 the data source is EIA.
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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