The current state of electricity consumption in Malta adheres to our forecast model that is based on actual data for the first 10 months of the year 2023, and forecasted data for the remaining 2 months. As of this forecast, fossil energy, particularly gas, represents the lion’s share of Malta's electricity consumption, standing at approximately 78.7% of the total. Gas is a type of fossil energy, and collectively, their contribution to the energy mix runs up to nearly 80%. Conversely, low-carbon energy sources such as solar significantly contribute lesser to the mix with a share of around 10.5%, which is identical to the percentage of net imports of electricity in Malta.
To increase its production of low-carbon electricity, Malta could expand its existing solar power facilities as they are already contributing effectively to electricity generation. It would be beneficial for Malta to learn from countries that have managed to generate a vast proportion of their electricity from low-carbon sources. While nuclear energy is used extensively in countries like France and Slovakia—both at more than 60%—Malta should consider its geographical area and population density. Denmark might be a more suitable model, producing almost 60% of its electricity from wind power. These examples highlight how countries, regardless of size, can switch towards more sustainable electricity generation models and reduce their dependency on fossil fuels.
Looking back in history, the generation of low-carbon electricity in Malta has remained unvarying in the past decade, with solar consistently producing no change in electricity generation from 2010 to 2023. Despite a well-integrated energy plan and the natural advantage enjoyed due to Malta's sunny climate, the island nation is yet to see significant development in its solar energy sector. It appears that the country has yet to fully capitalize on its full solar potential to contribute to its energy mix and reduce the over-dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports. With the proper policies and efforts in place, Malta has the potential to make meaningful strides towards low-carbon electricity generation in the future.