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Electricity in Bhutan in 2022

Global Ranking: #6
91.6% #14 Low-carbon electricity
1443.27 watts #12 Generation / person
57.61 gCO2eq/kWh #10 Carbon Intensity

As of 2022, Bhutan has achieved a commendable milestone in electricity consumption, with over 90% of its electricity generated from low-carbon sources. Specifically, hydropower contributes to 91.56% of Bhutan's electricity, illustrating the country's reliance on clean, green energy. This leaves a mere 8.44% of electricity coming from net imports, highlighting limited dependence on external sources or fossil fuels. Bhutan's progress in low-carbon electricity is impressive and serves as a model for countries aiming to reduce their carbon footprint. However, the next challenge lies in electrifying other sectors such as transport, heating, and industry, which will require a significant increase in electricity demand.


To further increase low-carbon electricity generation, Bhutan could diversify its energy mix by incorporating more nuclear, wind, and solar power. Expanding nuclear energy can provide a stable and continuous supply of electricity, complementing the seasonal variability of hydropower. Additionally, installing wind turbines in suitable locations and enhancing solar energy infrastructure could capture Bhutan's untapped potential for clean electricity. Government policies and incentives can encourage investments in these low-carbon sources, ensuring sustainable and secure energy for the nation’s future demands.


Historically, Bhutan's journey towards low-carbon electricity has been marked by consistent increases in hydropower generation. In the early 1990s, specifically in 1991, there was a modest increase of 0.1 TWh. Substantial developments occurred in the early 2000s with notable increments, such as 0.3 TWh in 2002 and 0.3 TWh in 2003. The mid-2000s witnessed impressive growth, particularly in 2006 and 2007, with increases of 1.8 TWh and 2 TWh respectively. These years were pivotal for Bhutan's hydropower sector. However, the period also saw some declines, such as -0.3 TWh in 2011 and -0.8 TWh in 2018, reflecting the fluctuating nature of hydropower. Nonetheless, 2019 marked a significant surge with an increase of 2.1 TWh, underscoring Bhutan's continued commitment to low-carbon electricity.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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